Culture and Traditions of Balinese Society

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HISTORY

Baliberasal according to the word "Bal" in Sanskrit means "Strength", and "Bali" means "Sacrifice" which means that we do not forget our strength. So that we are always ready to make sacrifices. Bali has 2 national heroics that are very instrumental in defending the area, namely I Gusti Ngurah Rai and I Gusti Ketut Jelantik.

LOCATION DESCRIPTION
Bali Island is part of the Small Sunda Islands which is thousands of denpasar cities.Other crucial places are Ubud as an arts center located in Gianyar Regency, while Kuta, Sanur, Seminyak, and Nusa Dua are some of the places that are tourist destinations, both tourists and rest areas. Balinese tribes are divided into 2yaitu: Bali Aga (balinese natives used to live in the trunyan region),' Bali Mojopahit (Balinese Hindu / Balinese mojopahit descendants).

ELEMENTS - CULTURAL ELEMENTS

A. LANGUAGE
Balisee part akbar uses Balinese language & Indonesian, most Balinese people are bilingual or even trilingual. English is the third language and the primary foreign language for the people of Bali which is determined by the needs of the tourism industry. Balinese language is divided into 2, namely, Aga language is a Balinese language whose pronunciation is more rough, and Balinese Mojopahit.

B. KNOWLEDGE
Banjar or can be claimed as adesa is a form of social unity based on regional unity. Social unity was strengthened by the unity of customs and religious ceremonies. Banjar is headed by klian banjar who is in charge of all affairs in the field of social life and religion, but often also has to solve problems that meet the rules of land norms, and things that are administrative.

C. TECHNOLOGY
The people of Bali already know and develop the irrigation system that is a subak system that regulates irrigation and planting in rice fields. And they are also familiar with the architecture that governs the layout of rooms and buildings that resemble The Shui building. Architecture is a communicative and educative expression. Bali also has traditional weapons, one of which is one of them. In addition to defending themselves, from the belief if heirloom kris soaked in water can cure people affected by venomous bites.

D. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION
a) Marriage
The withdrawal of ancestry in Balinese society is a point of patrilineal. The caste system greatly affects the process of marriage, because a woman whose higher caste is married to a man whose lower caste is not justified because there is an irregularity, which will create family shame and drop the quality of all castes based on girls.
In some areas of Bali (nir all regions), there is also the surrender of dowry (petukuluh), but now especially among the family of people who learn, has disappeared.
b). Kinship
The custom of settling inBalisesudah married affects the association of correlations in a society. There are various kinds of two sedentary ordinances that often apply inBali, namely virilokal is a ordinance that allows newlyweds to settle around the center of residence of the husband's relatives, and neolocal mores are the ones that determine the newlyweds live alone in the new residence. In Bali there are 3 hordes of primary klen (triwangsa) namely: Brahmanase as a ceremonial leader, Knights namely: special groups such as Arya Kepakisan & Jaba as religious leaders.
c). Community
Village, a unity of life of the balinese community includes in 2 understanding, namely: village ordinance and village service (administrative). Both are a regional unity in relation to using religious or customary mores, while the official village is an admistrative unity. Traditional village activities are centered on the field of mores and religious ceremonies, while the official village is centered on the field of administration, government and development.

E. LIVELIHOODS
In usually the people of Bali, the livelihood is more dominated by farming, in a plain where the rainfall is quite good, especially cattle and pigs as a crucial effort in rural communities in Bali, both land and marine fisheries that are part-time broken eyes, crafts include the manufacture of woven objects, statues, fabrics, carvings, prints, coffee factories, cigarette factories, etc. Efforts in this field to provide jobs in the population. Because many tourists who visit Bali then arises the business of hospitality, travel, handicraft stores.

F. RELIGIOUS
The religion embraced by some Balinese is a Hindu belief of approximately 95%, according to the population ofBali, while the remaining 5% are adherents of Islam, Christianity, Catholicism, Buddhism, and Kong Hu Cu. The purpose of the life of Hindu teachings is to achieve balance and peace of birth &inner.Hindus believe in the existence of 1 God in the form of the concept of Trimurti, namely the form of God (by the creator), the form of Vishnu (the protector & preserver), and the form of Shiva (by the destroyer). The place of worship is considered a temple. Places of ancestor worship are called rebuttals. The Hindu scriptures are vedas that originated based on India.

People who died in Hinduism held a Ngaben ceremony which is considered very important to free the spirits of the dead of the world from their worldly bonds to nirvana. Ngaben itself is a corpse ceremony. The feast of Hindu believers is Nyepi which is held in the ceremony of saka new year on the 1st of the month of 10 (kedasa), in addition there are also galungan, brass, saraswati, tumpek landep, tumpek uduh, and shiva ratri.

Guidelines in the study of Hindu beliefs are: (1). tattwa (philosophy of religion), (2). Ethics(susila), (three). Ceremony (yadnya). On the contrary there are five kinds of ceremonies (pancayadnya), namely (1). Yadnya man is a ceremony during pregnancy until adulthood. (two). Pitra Yadnya is a ceremony addressed to ancestral spirits. (three). Dewa Yadnya is a ceremony held at a family temple. (4). Rsi yadnya is interviewed at the inauguration of a priest. (5) Bhuta yadnya is a ceremony for spirits around human beings who disturb humans.

G. ART
Cultural culture in Bali is classified as three primary groups, namely fine art for example painting, sculpture, architecture, performing arts such as dance, literary arts, drama arts, music arts, and audiovisual arts, especially video and film art.

CULTURAL VALUES
1. Manners: norms of manners that are agreed in the environment of association between people in the group.
two. Nguopin : gotong royong.
three. Ngayah or ngayang: devotional work for religious purposes.
4. Manners: the manner of interaction in social manners towards people who are not in harmony with sex.

ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT
In reverse the type of livelihood is farming disawah. These livelihoods are starting to shift to the type of nonfarm livelihoods. This shift occurs because at the moment with the development of the tourism industry in the Bali region, then they expect to start to develop also especially in the livelihoods of their people.

So most people sell their land for tourism industry that is felt bigger and faster. Income earned at this time is mostly based on non-agricultural livelihoods, for example: artisans, drivers, industry, and household manufacturing. The craft industry of stair housing such as leading a flour slippage company, coconut slippage, rice slide, embroidery business or sewing sewing.

Bali has poly various ancestral cultural heritage that is still embedded and inherently closely in the balinese community itself, as well as many unique traditions that are still held firmly among the citizens. Existing culture and traditions have their own special characteristics in each region, village and banjar that exist in Bali. Having a rich culture that is diverse is certainly a task of society to preserve it, not be crushed or shifted because of the influence of the modern world today.

The cultural elements that have are; music such as gamelan, rindik, jegog and genggong, dance arts such as barong dance, kecak dance, pendet, gambuh, joged & many others, Bali also has its own language and clothing and according to religious aspects of the dominant hindu population, all are tourist attracting magnets for holidays in Bali.

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